Poor-people participation in supporting local government’s innovative policy and or any kinds of new intervention program on societies is still remain a problem. Low participation of them was caused by lack of strategic approach to touch poor-people’s need in their daily life. This study explores trust elements working in social life in urban poor societies in area of sanitation program implementation in Probolinggo City, East Java, Indonesia. This research was held using qualitative method by interpreting interview results of the people and key actors of innovative program implementors. The findings of this research are, first, positive participation of the societies came from positive social construction of societies when they adapted the new program from government as their own; second, people transforms new program into their own way to make effectives under traditional common share-benefit activity, transformative rational choice; third, small community under informal leader playing role as activator make self-helped running program in a spend of time until they incubate personal trust toward the leaders into a patterned habit, personal trust institutionalization.
Keywords – personal trust institutionalization, society participation, social behavior changing, transformative rational choice, social entrepreneurship activator.
Society participation in some policy and or program implementation of local government generally have a tendentious meanings and still have a double sided meanings, as field observation found, terms of society participation has situational definition, where as government define it as a willingness of the people to take part or to do things or to get involved in their program voluntarily. On the other hand, people assume that participation, especially in terms of participation in governmental activities is giving something they have to government such as a little spend of time, materials, that it means cutting off their chance to get work in order to serve their own livelihood. People consider that participation is none of their business and do not make advantages to them. In fact, people lazy to make participation to react government’s program, but by this condition, local government often undertake breakthrough to make people participation shortcutly to succeed their program through soft mobilization. They create participation-like when implementing program when people participation is needed. People welcoming this model of mobilization necesarrily. In general, people constructing any policy an or program of local government as a charity program so that they do not need to take part actively of the program offered. Poor people in general consider that they pay much attention and make priorities more on their own need related to their life such as taking job to make money rather than taking part to government’s program. This is a rational choice for them to do much for their livelihood.
One of local government’s program for the poor, in this case urban poor societies is sanitation program to build private latrine for people do not have it at their house. People do defecation on the river near their settlement and or at yards near the river. At this area, people consider that having latrine at home is disgusting, so that they were better not to do defecation at home but far away from home, so that they choose the river and land near river to comply with. This behavior as occurs in dozens of years as long as they live there. Government of Probolinggo Municipal through Puskesmas (Public Health Service) Wonoasih arranged sanitation program on this area, Kedung Galeng village, Wonoasih suburban, Probolinggo City. A sanitarian officer of Puskesmas Wonoasih, Sulistyo Triantono or called Anton, said that they choose this area because it has much obstinate people, had a bad habit in doing defecation and hard undisipline. All population at this area do not have private latrine at their house. He argue that this area is a barometer for next success in ather places when they had succeed the program for this village (interview, Probolinggo, 2016). A’yun, or called Bu A’yun, one of resident of Kedung Galeng village said that she and her family prefer doing defecate at the river because it has more practical and easy to do and ‘do not make dirty her house’. She also said that doing defecate at home latrine is a disgusting manner and stinky, is like spending faeces at home. She said “bau dan jijik pak. Mosok buang tai di rumah. Buang tai ya di sungai, biar rumah ndak bau” (to have defecation at home latrine is disgusting and stinky. We have better do this at the river to keep my house clean and not smell from it). Besides, they don’t want to have private home latrine because of the cost of building latrine was so expensive for them. They don’t want to spend much money only to build a dirty and stinky maker at home. They prefer spend their money to buy primary goods. They also accustomed to wait free-aid from government to help them. Unfortunately, local government in the era of local direct election has charity program, and the major arrange various popular program to give people especially poor people some money when visiting villages (blusukan) or visiting dead person’s family to give condolences and funeral aid (ta’ziyah), giving school operational assistance (Bantuan Operasional Sekolah, abbreviated as BOS), delivered inexpensive health services through Puskesmas, even gave free health service for the poor (jamkesmas), delivered aid rice-for-the-poor (raskin), inexpensive food staple (sembako) and many more popular programs (Sobari, 2016:84). Dilemmas of local government in treating poor societies came when they want to implement innovative policy and program related to the poor. The innovative program they want to deliver to urban poor societies living in Kedung Galeng village, Wonoasih suburban is sanitation program named “Community-Based Total Sanitation Program” (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat, STBM). One of activity of the program is “Stop Buang Air Besar Sembarangan” (Stop Doing Gratuitous Defecation). Probolinggo Municipal government delivered this program under the tittle of “Kikis Perilaku Buang Air Besar Sembarangan” (Eliminate Gratuitous Defecation Behavior) through private home latrine building (Puskesmas Wonoasih program document, 2016).
People at Wonoasih suburban area indicate strong unaccess to hygienic home latrine, they are 58,11 percent or 4.431 head of family (kepala keluarga, KK). In an assumption that one KK has 2 children, so one KK has 4 people, it means that number of people have defecation-gratuitous habit is about 17.724 people (Puskesmas Wonoasih, 2016).
Puskesmas Wonoasih delivered the sanitation program of “Kikis Perilaku Buang Air Besar Sembarangan” (Eliminate Gratuitous Defecation Behavior) through private home latrine building in a innovative way. They create community-based eliminating gratuitous defecation under the concept of arisan (randomly common-benefit-share with regular social gathering) and angsuran (installment payment). They named the program “Sistem Inovasi Layanan Arisan/ Angsuran Jamban” (Innovative System of Home Latrine Ownership With Installment Payment or Regular Social Gathering) or abbreviated as “Si Inul Aja”. The program implemented in Kedung Galeng village, Wonoasih suburban, that has 242 KK, and all of them do not have access to hygienic home latrine.
The problem is on how to make change people’s habit in this area to abandon their old habit of doing gratuitous defecation, in the river and or ground arround the river. People mostly has conservative character and they also hard-to-change because they have been in ‘comfort zone’ for dozens years. It is hard to change habit and make social change or make people participate in this innovative program. New intervention will be assumed annoying their comfortable life. Moreover, such new program need financial cost for that they hate.
Weak participation of the society to such sanitation program also happen happens in Penggaron village, Mojowarno suburban, Jombang District, East Java region, is also implementing similar programs. The sanitation program is a national program, through the Minister of Health Regulation No. 3 of 2014 on Community-Led Total Sanitation (STBM). STBM approach is to change the behavior of hygienic and sanitary through community empowerment by means of actuating one of the activities is STBM Stop Gratuitous Defecation, which is a condition when every individual in a community no longer perform defecation behavior that could potentially spread the disease.
A study conducted by Albertha Andika Karla and Farid Ma’ruf in Penggaron village, Mojowarno suburban, Jombang District, shows the weakness of public participation in the sanitation program. The largest contribution on weakness participation in this study is the communication variable. While the variables of age, education, occupation, and length of stay has no effect on participation in the program (Karla, 2016). Referring to the results of the Karla’s study, communication factor or strategic approach is a crucial issues to succeed the program which targetted communities is very important. It determines the success of the program, whether society is willing to participate in the program being executed or refused.
This study focuses on participation strategy that relies on the utilization of social capital (personal trust) is transformed into institutional trust through social habituation during social practices. So the focus is on how to actuate participation of urban poor people and motivate them to change their bad habit and succeed the innovative program accordingly.
Society participation in development issues and governance, as outlined by Suryono (2001: 124), is the participation of people in development, participate in development activities and take benefit and enjoy the results of development. While Yuwono (2001: 124) states that participation means a joint effort run shoulder to shoulder with our brothers and compatriots to build the future together to achieve common goals. Meanwhile, Philip M. Hadjon (1997: 4-5) argues that the concept of public participation with regard to the concept of openness. In a sense, without the openness of government may not be able to do community participation in the activities of government. When people may gain their benefit from program implemented, they will make participation.
Participation in relation to the implementation of public policies, according Sad Dian Utomo (2003: 267-272) is useful to provide a better basis for public policy-making, ensuring their implementation more effective for citizens to know and be involved in public policy making, increase the trust of citizens to the executive and legislative, resource efficiency, because the public participation in formulating public policy and determine public policy, the resources used in public policy dissemination can be saved.
Policy, as stated by Solichin Abdul Wahab, in Mochtar and Kuswandoro (2015:12) is:
“a projected program of goals, values and practices” or “… a proposed course of action of a person, group, or government within a given environment providing obstacles and opportunities the which the policy was proposed to utilize and overcome in an effort to reach a goal or an objective realize or a purpose “.
The ‘policy’ term is widely used in its relation to the actions or activities of the government and the behavior of the state in general that is as policies that developed or formulated by agencies and government officials. Innovative policy, is implementing policy that is proposed course of action of a person, group or government in a new and attractive way.
People give response to government’s innovative programs on the principle of rational choice. They will participate into the program in a rational if they find favor or bring a change for their better life. Innovative program implemented with due regard to the principle of rational choice to be in line with the public interest, carried out using the approach of social capital utilization. Social capital, in view of World Bank which interprets social capital as a social practices that involves aspects of social networks to mediate opportunities and development outcomes (Kuswandoro, 2013: 587-588). Innovative public policy implementation need social capital where it can be incubated altogether the societies.
Social Capital and Trust
Social capital, in relation to public service, as stated above, is referred to efforts fertilizing relationships and social interaction between citizens and between citizens and public service officials. These two parties playing role social reproduction as Bourdieu’s said, in social capital discussion, social relations built by trust, social trust (Field, 2014:102). Social work, further as social organization, according to Robert Putnam, is the appearance of social capital that facilitates the community to work towards a common goal. Social capital is the social glue that helps people, organisations and communities to work together towards shared goals. It comes from everyday contact between people, as a result of their forming social connections and networks based on trust, shared values, and reciprocity (or ‘give and take’). Social glue is born of social interaction and emotional bonds that bring people together to achieve a common goal (shared goals), which then fosters growing confidence of the relation. Thus, mutual trust, adherence to social norms and social networks that can improve the efficiency of the performance of the public, is an important element of social capital that exists in a variety of community organizations. This condition occur in social interaction that takes place in a long time. Social cooperation network is increasingly works if there is a public space that guarantees the social interaction and dialogue among citizens and between citizens and public service officials, to formulate jointly expected public services citizens.
According to Putnam’s thought, social capital is not single. It is concist of wide range of social relationships and social processes of the various actors. In Indonesia societies in general, a wide social context to show the face of a variety of social capital as well. Behind advances in non-governmental organizations, witnessed some of the paradoxical in social capital. In horizontal plurality of serving society rather than pluralism conflict and cohesion (Kuswandoro, 2009: 189). Social capital, in which there is social cohesion, mutual trust between individuals, then in the context of public service, interrelationdhip of trust will grow fast in the public domain, involving the community at large, including among members of the community with local public service providers (collectively confidence), run as non-profit as an agent in relationship to government. This relationship empower that non-profit as an agent of public policy and all it implies about performance, expectation, evaluation, control, and feedback through political and legislative advocacy (Bryce, 2005:55).
Study of social capital (trust, personal trust) in public policy implementation and socially incubation efforts to habituate societies into social change and behavioral change to succeed such innovative program, will necessarily need this pattern would be stable as common action rules. When societies as social system running in line with people’s desires as member of groups of societies, they will accept any social rules. In this stage, they will be more adaptable from any innovative program. This social process also change their habitus. Social transformation making people adaptable in a stable pattern is a institutionalization of personal trust.
Institutionalization, according to Samuel P. Huntington (2004: 16), is a process in which organizations and procedures acquire value and stable raw. Values and stability in Huntington understanding manifested in the establishment of behavior, attitudes or culture within the organization. Or, institutionalization as Ramlan Surbakti stated, a process of consolidation of organization, either in the established form of behavior that make pattern and in attitudes or culture (http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0301/06/opini/46752.htm).
The study of institutionalization, or in terms of Kathleen Thelen and Sven Steinmo (2002: 2), “rediscovery” institutionalization, reappears in the discussion of comparative politics and political economy, which is where the idea of new intitusionalization associated with the thought of Suzanne Berger, Peter Hall, Peter Katzenstein, and Theda Skocpol. Institutionalism or institutional understanding, refers to the notion of the institution, which includes the organization of formal, informal rules and procedures. Peter Hall, as quoted by Kathleen Thelen and Sven Steinmo, expand the scope of this definition to include formal rules, procedures to be followed, operational practices standard structuring relationships between people in the political and economic context. Here, the main concern of the institutionalists is on the whole territory of roaming state and social institutions that frame how political actors define their interests and structured power relations to other groups. Behavioralis the view that the political understanding not only focuses on the forms of formal government institutions, but should expand roaming the plains of understanding on the distribution of power, political attitudes and behavior. Understood “new institutionalism”, as stated by Goodin, cited by Vivien Lowndes (2002: 91), to operate with a greater understanding and expansive on the subject matter. Institutions (agencies) politics is no longer equated with the organization, but more widely understood that the pattern of repetitive behavior and stable habit. It is not only monitor the impact on individual of institutions, but the interaction between institutions and individuals.
Some actors getting involved in sanitation program is considered as political actors, and societies where they are a member of, is an organization, a social organization. They make their own rules, believes and way to life and living together, or habitus, as Bourdieu stated (Harker, 1990:13). Each member of societies or subject has its habitus, and it may be changed conditionally. Inter-personal relations may cause inter-relativeness of habitus, and when they meet each other in social exchange pattern will build institutionalization of trust. Because of social character of societies in this area, institutionalization consist of personal trust, called personal trust institutionalization. This, in line to the idea of causal linkages between public policy and public response in public policy implementation studies (Gosling, 2004:104).
This study is an exploration efforts to make an understanding on why and how urban poor people in the societies in Kedung Galeng suburban, Wonoasih, Probolinggo City, accepting innovative program from local government. The program is environmental sanitation to build personal sanitation equipments on each house. This area is the most difficult people of the entire city to accept any kind of sanitation installations. Using qualitative method, this study explore people’s experience in their daily social life, how they change their old habit in making defecation gratuitous to the new one, doing defecation using their own home latrine.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Actuating Participation of Conservative People, Make Social Change
Experience of program implementation of home latrine arisan and installment payment in sanitation program in Kedung Galeng village, Wonoasih suburban, Probolinggo City indicate closer character of the program to the society. This program was arranged to change people’s habit of doing defecation gratuitous, usually they do that in village river and or land arround the river, to new and healthy way, to do defecation using home latrine.
The innitiative of formerly sanitation program came from government and they make implementation through Puskesmas Wonoasih to delivere it to the society. Anton as a central actor of this program implementor, said that he was the first person to ask people to change their way to do defecation by using home latrine. Formerly people do defecation in the river for dozens of years. Anton encourages people so that by his own conscience want to stop behaviors that are not clean and healthy is a habit of gratituous defecation (BABs) in the open area (river, back yard, ground arround river, etc) to change it to a healthy way ie using latrine. He started to make a former discussion, called “pemicuan” (trigging to start discussion with people) with on the set of the Dasa Wisma (Ten-Membered Neighborhood) members, female moslem group of religion recitation (pengajian muslimatan), neighborhood gathering, schools, and even in the PKK (Family Welfare Empowerment) and Islamic boarding school.
Practically, Anton, as leading innovator of this implementing innovative program, stated many steps to actuate conservative people’s participation, as follows (interview, Probolinggo, 2016):
- Doing “transec-walk’ that invites people to look directly at the location (the river) as a place to defecate.
- From the location to the river should be triggered through the garden of teak-tree and is approximately 600 meters.
- Once at the location (the river) there was still a residual of human waste (feces) that still exists on the riverbank.
- At that time, Anton, the facilitator, immediately took the river water to arrive. Then asked people to wash their hands in the water in the bucket, and they wash their hands immediately.
- Then Anton took a tree branch, and take a bit of residual fecal matter on the river bank, and then put in a bucket filled with water of the river.
- How is the response of the people to see this actions?
- Immediately some people live there who vomited.
- Then Anton told the citizens again to wash hands in the bucket, what was the reaction of citizens?
- It turns out that all the villagers immediately reject in disgust, fear of illness. Now people of the illustration actually been triggered (to do healthy manner when doing defecate).
These have changed people’s mind on how to do defecate healthily. But they faced a new difficulty: financing, because the cost of making the family latrine is quite expensive for those whose average income is low (below Rp. 500,000, – per month). The target group is RT 3, 4, 5 (3 RT) in Kedung Galeng village, Wonoasih suburban, as many as 225 families (KK). Group of RT 3 which became the first target because the condition is most severe. RT 3 were 63 families, the average working as laborers and casual laborers. They have a habit of doing a traditional religious meeting every Monday evening and Thursday evening. Male membered recitation group led by kiai Fauzan, whereas for women led by nyai Nuraini (wife of kiai Fauzan). Kiai Fauzan also pioneered the citizens to conduct discussions on the small mosque (mushala) near kiai Fauzan’s house.
From several times had discussions with the citizens, they finally agreed to be willing to have family latrines, but still constrained financing. Finally, the agreed to use means gathering as prevalent. So they carry out “social gathering for latrine”. Gathering system is to choose the winner randomly to determine who will make the latrine the first time with the funds that have accumulated dues gathering. It make them feel easy to pay for latrine. The money collected be made privy to the families who received social gathering, at the cost of making latrine is a maximum of Rp. 1.700.000, -. Citizens may determine their own prices depend on their abilities. Quality of latrines obtained according to the financial capacity of the person. The average citizen chooses latrines price of Rp. 750.000, -. Each family only need to set aside Rp. 2.000, – to pay for that lottery is held each time for their routine. Residents who do not come recitation group, remains subject to the obligation to pay Rp. 2.000, -. Money collected in kiai Fauzan to set in latrine construction. If there is excess money in counts per participant gathering, stored as cash.
The arisan (gathering) model last for two months, residents feel bored because for too long they wait their turn to get a social gathering to build latrines. The arisan model is only allowed to build one unit latrine per month for one family. People who have not been able to get the arisan is getting bored. Although no boredom on the citizens, but on this side is for the success of this program, because when people can not wait to have a latrine in his house, meaning there has been increasing awareness and behavior change. The arisan model have examined them to enhance their ability to do more for latrine building. It is a real education for the people to make change on their thinking and belief in making perseption on new program.
Then they make a discussion again at the small mosque (mushalla) where residents are accustomed to discussing there. They choose the model of installments payment (angsuran). Every citizen paying the installments as a replacement for the gathering, with the nominal of money calculated based on individual cost for latrine building. The repayment period is aligned with the schedule of recitals, which is 2 times a week. Residents pay an installment to the kiai Fauzan who also act as collecting payment. Kiai Fauzan consult to Anton as the originator of the program. And to facilitate the work of this latrine construction, Anton cooperate with shops selling building materials to provide material debt for development projects this latrine. The shop owner, Mrs. Umi, agreed to lend it first (bailout) in the form of building materials, especially cement and limestone. At the beginning of implementation of the program of social gathering (arisan) and installment (angsuran), has reached 19 families (KK), then rose to within 6 months it have achieved about 60% of KK amount completing latrine ownership in this area.
This working model they called “entrepreneurial sanitation”, which they also gave the brand as “Sistem Inovasi Layanan Arisan/ Angsuran Jamban” or abbreviated as “Si Inul Aja”, which stands for “Sistem Inovasi Arisan dan Angsuran Jamban” (Innovative System of Home Latrine Ownership With Installment Payment or Regular Social Gathering). Entrepreneurial Sanitation, as the core driving force and motivator in the program “Si Inul Aja”, which triggered the start facilitator, provider / maker of healthy latrines, and promoter of social gathering / installment latrines. Entrepreneurial Sanitation, a model of social entrepreneur, will build a network with related components. Building store is needed to supply the material needs of healthy latrines manufacture of demand for the construction of latrines by the community. Health Center Sanitation Officers, PKK, District, Village, Midwives, Vegetables Wholesalers as a promoter and facilitator of change environmental health problems in the community. All components of this society is engaged in participation because they are disinclined to a figure in the informal leader, Kiai Fauzan and his wife, Nyai Nuraini. They are the driving elements of the community to make change in their behavior. If there is a demand from the public of the need for latrines, the cadres together Entrepreneurial Sanitaryware to form a group that can be coordinated and facilitated by the program “Si Inul Aja”.
The core of this program resembles the model of social entrepreneurs, even more as the driving element of the operation of social entrepreneurship system.
Society participation has direct relations to society’s interests. This program has element of people’s need oriented. Most governmental program do not indicate people’s need but only aimed to completion of project targetted and omitted public need aspect. Implementation of this program designed in the atmosphere of mutual benefit between society and government. Giving real benefit under people’s logic and need lead to smooth approach to the people. This participation actuating is held by utilizing social capital potential living socially embedded to the society.
From Personal Trust to Institutionalized Trust
One of social capital they have is personal trust to their local informal leaders called kiai or kyae (male religious leader) and nyai (female religious leader). Urban poor societies in this area tends to delegate their interest to their informal leader called kiai or kyae. Kiai Fauzan, as a patron of the society has central social role. Poor people in this area lean their social problems to the kiai. Socially the relation between the kiai and societies is social capital, personal trust, and then the kiai recode the social message into an adaptation and accepting or rejecting the new intervention towards them. At the level of trust or distrust, local informal leader may interprete it related to his or her perseption or assumption toward state (institutional trust). This research make effort to trace source of personal trust and institutional trust and then institutionalize personal trust to be a stable habitus of the society (personal trust institutionalization). This, aimed to analyse society’s response to sanitation program. This contains historical experience shows that skills of innovator actor played by government of Probolinggo Municipal, namely Puskesmas Wonoasih, create a trust on behalf of the government to the communities in the study area. Innovators actors as a agent of change requires the actor mediatory agent to connect the idea to the target communities through role of informal leaders (kiai, kyae) or the so-called “kiyae mosengan”.
This kiai mosengan (Islam) which used to lead religious rituals and customs in the region, such as recitals, shalawatan, yasinan, sarwe’en, etc. as well as social issues. This person became patron of the society. Personal relationships that have developed between government officials (innovator) with this kijaji (kiai, kyae) affect relations programs that are running. The relation between them and between kiai with their peoples, each of which are variants of “personal trust” or distrust the local leaders. These elements are then utilized in accordance with the needs of the implementation of government programs and policies. Personal approach to the society has patterned as patron-client relationship, also about the practices of mediation and roles contextual “trust” at the individual level, which looked at the response of civil society on a new program that goes to the social area they are, is a reaction of the elements of power and domination of state. The implication is the introduction of the importance of relations with the accepting the possibilities of political action and fulfillment of interests voluntarily to the relationship between the state and the citizens. Acceptance of citizens in receiving new program is influenced by the proximity of the community with local government through local informal leaders. On the government side, in an effort to succeed its programs to the residents of the community and how the government made changes in the behavior of citizens targeted in terms of behavior change, from doing defecate in the river and the grounds around the river to the new behavior do defecate in latrines personal property of their respective families , explaining the motivation and the tendency of citizens in relation to the state, namely social construction of society on government. The social construction of society to government influence government policy and the government’s political environment, ie, whether policymaking conducted by rational choice or based on the utilization of traditional social capital.
Empirically there is a relationship which shows the consistency of concepts with significant observable behavior at the reception citizens against the government program. For implementor of policies, implies about the choice of making persuasive or coercive measures to foster political relations with local leaders that are role models of society. Experience of the residents in the area of this study presents the findings are quite interesting, about the complexity of the character of community participation and informal leaders who become their role models. Therefore, this study propose explanations that emphasize on the roles of local innitiatives, so-called “rational trust”. In this process of rational trust, citizens tend to delegate its interests to the informal leaders they believes in (as patron) in their community. This informal leaders then respond according to the degree of confidence (trust) they have against the government. There is a mediation process in the “mediatory-relation” before contacting with the state, played by informal learders (kiai or kyae). There is also a variant of the degree of confidence which are influenced by the contexts of specific relationships and a history of relationship with the state.
There is a constitutive relation of the workings of “rational trust” that is, first, citizens continue personal trust to local leaders (their patron) with a delegation of policy-related interests on government programs. Second, local leaders and the community in general, with the trust has an important role in the act of acceptance of policy initiatives or government programs. It’s called “institutional trust”. In short, the acceptance of citizens against government policy or program depends on trust.
Personal Trust Institutionalization
Personal trust institutionalization is a social process habituate personal trust into persistence habit with stable patterned social way of life among people in the societies build by person to person trust. Once person lay his or her trust to informal leader and then it spreads to others. Personal trust institutionalization transforms social interaction becomes incentive trust make their social cohession better. Then, personal trust institutionalization, then I abbreviate it as “PeTIs”, is an embedded or genuine common-trust among people of the societies, the new model of actuating people participation.
In the context of public acceptance reaction against government policy are issues related to the perception of the existence and survivalitas themselves on people and their perceptions of the government. This condition indicates a distance between state and the people, which then led to the public perception of situational relationship to the state, which regards the state is weak and neglect in the performance of public policy and often fail to manage the public interest, and so on. Meanwhile, the state considers people as the weaker party in access to power and have weak stamina so deserving according to the government. This condition is more complex when the state and local people are involved in the common interest shown by the inclusion of civil society activists into the realm of government.
Exploration of subjective perception the public perception of the government and its policies and programs are crucial in the study of local politics and local governance, especially the study of society participation in development and local governance and also politics.
In understanding the relation between state and the public concerning the rights and obligations of each proportionally and fairly naturally, the necessary understanding and explanation reflects the experience of the subject so that the meanings of the relation state and the public can attend from the gap relationships and distances thoughts and attitudes as well as differences in the definition of the situation and the interests of the public perception of the government apparatus so that it can influence the thoughts and actions as well as government policies are concerned with the public. Likewise, the public also has a subjective experience perception of the government, which raises the suspicion of various advanced and affects the social action, for example in terms of participation in social and political activities that intersect with the government. Building societies subject experience influences the formation of the construction on the meaning of life following subject relation to the state.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
- Public participation in supporting local government’s policy generally built by political design of local government itself using mobilization approach.
- Local societies especially urban poor people make constructs on their local government’s policy as an alien things pursuing their own need without any relevancies with people’s needs.
- General failure of some intervention program by local government is a lack of public trust on it so that people, especially urban poor people rarely committed to them unless they find important thing affect their life.
- Actuating public participation effectively is such designing policy and program closer to a very important issues belongs to the people by utilizing genuine social capital potential living on them, people’s trust that started from personal trust.
- Genuine social capital living altogether with people is personal trust toward their traditional informal leaders called kiai kampung or kiyae mosengan, that have original powers to the people.
- Personal Trust Institutionalization (PeTIs) is institutionalizing trust elements in a frequently social activities between policy implementors or innovators with the people within social scheme as a patterned social habit.
- Personal Trust Institutionalization (PeTIs) is a social reproduction with new face might affect significantly on individual behavior and social change in a certain stage, and further it might be a strategic approach for an innovative policy incubating.
- Local government when delivering intervention program to the society must have calculate social capital elements living on societies and basing their policy on it to make more effective.
- Personal trust, as genuine social capital and also a body of knowledge of societies must have been fertilized when governmental program implemented.
- Implementation of government policy must have not destroy genuine social capital elements.
- Personal Trust Institutionalization (PeTIs) may be a alternative model in actuating society participation.
Bibliograpy, not shown.
Artikel ini dipresentasikan dalam “International Postgraduate Research Conference“, 12 – 13 November 2016 di Manado.